A Historical Innovation

New innovations are usually stimulated by a problem that is important to an industry. The development of the computer came about during the nineteenth century as the result of the need for accurate star charts and maps as England developed into a world power. It was relatively easy for a ship to navigate from north to south because north of the equator the North Star provide a reference point. South of the equator the ships could navigate using the Southern Cross. The early Vikings stayed relatively close to shore so they were able to explore much of the known world including China where Viking artifacts have been found. The Vikings also explored the coastline of North America and possibly South America. When ships started to explore by sailing east to west they could easily get lost because the star and planetary charts were not dependable. Great Britain responded by creating a governmental entity called the Board of Longitude in 1714 which existed until 1828. A loss of several ships a few years before 1714 was the primary reason for the creation of a Board of Longitude.

About 1819, three elite graduates of the University of Cambridge were hired to work on charts and maps which required tedious calculations by hand. John Hershel, George Peabody, and Charles Babbage were hired to do this work but found it so tedious that they hired a mathematical savant whose primary talent was to do mathematical calculations in his head. Babbage was so vexed by the monotony of the work that he exclaimed, “It is too bad we do not have a machine to do the calculations for us.” He started on a lifelong quest to develop a mechanical computer to do such calculations.

He was advised by his friends to write up the idea and let others work out the details.
He was determined to proceed on his own and set up a workshop where he hired skilled machinists to develop a mechanical computer. His first machine was Difference No.1, followed by Difference No.2, which to my knowledge was never actually built, and finally the Analytical Engine which was completed by his son after Babbage died.

The following are some of the outcomes of Babbage’s efforts to build a mechanical computer:
1. Machine tools with fine tolerances because if multiplications and additions were to be done by mechanical means the gears had to be machined to fine tolerances.
2. Mechanical drawings which previously did not exist were developed and are still used in all kinds of industries. Mechanical drawings are now done on computers using sophisticated programs.
3. Punch cards to carry out mechanical calculations with a high degree of accuracy. Metal punch cards were already in use by the weaving industry which Babbage found when he toured England and Europe to learn the latest techniques in manufacturing. A company now known as IBM used punch cards for the 1890 census in the United States.
4. Babbage hired very skilled workman to carry out his work. One was named Enfield who became wealthy because he introduced spiral grooves in rifles and other munitions. The Enfield rifle was famed for its accuracy because it spun the bullet while in the barrel of the gun and greatly increased its accuracy. I recently learned that the Enfield rifle was used by the Confederate Army during the seige of Vicksburg. When the Southern soldiers surrendered to Grant’s Army they stacked their rifles as they left Vicksburg. Among those rifles were the newest Enfield rifles which the Northern Armies had never seen. Grant was happy to use these for the first time because they were breech loaded, more accurate, and safer than tamping black powder and lead bullets down a barrel.
5. Mechanical computers were still used in university labs during World War II.
6. The first semi-electronic computers used old style radio tubes to power the computers, but they were slow, generated great amounts of heat, and needed a great amount space.
7. The addition of a video screen such as I am now using to type this post was used by Xerox in their Palo Alto research Laboratory. Steve Jobs visited this laboratory and incorporated it into his first computer. He also visited the University of California who were using a computer language developed jointly with ATT&T called Unix. He adopted the Unix system which put it at odds with MS-DOS computers used by Microsoft which became the dominant computer system.
8. When Steve Jobs was fired from Apple he started his own computer company called NEXT which Apple purchased when Jobs was rehired as CEO of Apple. The NEXT computer used Unix as its operating system with one difference–it used Intel processors instead of the computer Power PC processors developed by IBM, Motorola, and Apple. When IBM failed to provide Apple with the most advanced computer processors, because it sold most of them to Sony and Microsoft, Jobs stopped using the Power PC processors and purchased Intel’s processors and ported over the Unix operating system to the computers using Intel chips. By doing this innovative switch, he was able to run both Apples’ operating system and MS DOS, the operating system used by Microsoft. A program called Parallels is a software program which allows both Apple software and Microsoft to operate on an Apple computer using Intel processors without rebooting the computer. I now have an Apple MacMini computer which has an Intel processor so I could use both Microsoft and Apple software on the same computer. At present, I still have four Power PC Mac computers which are still very usable, but the software written for these computers is slowly becoming obsolete because the market for them is very small.
9. The process of innovation continued with printers and the internet which allowed paper copies and high speed communication which now spans every country. Internet speeds have increased dramatically from the early telephone to coaxial cable which I use. Typewriters have basically become extinct with the use of the word processor which is part of every computer program. Electronic mail in the form of emails and faxes have replaced the teletypes which were used for many years. Many newspapers and magazines are now available in digital forms so that the print media has given way to reporters who work for blogs such as the Huffington Post. Blogs such as this one allow me to communicate with anyone who cares to subscribe. The social media has allowed groups of people to communicate with one another. I have one in which many of my family members subscribe.
10. The last innovation I read about in the latest Popular Science Magazine describes the use of three dimensional printers which allow the production of human body parts which in the future can be made to order for a particular person since one size does not fit all. This is still in the development stage as far as I know.
11. I recently received a Kindle Paper White so I can now read digital books in low light, no light or bright sunlight. There are applications so that one can also read the books on the computer, but I like reading in bed and my Kindle is small enough, about 6 inches by 4 inches and can be read horizontally or vertically. Some of the novels are 99 cents, others like the Lewis and Clark expedition funded by my relative, President Thomas Jefferson, are more expensive.
12. I was once asked where I got my information for my blog. Most of it is out of my own head, but I also use the internet to look up information on the articles I write. For this post I referred back to the dissertation I wrote for my Ph.D. My dissertation was entitled Charles Babbage, Philosopher, Reformer, Inventor: A History of His Contributions to Science, by Walter Lyle Bell(1975). This took me about 4 years to complete because I had to get some of my materials from the British Museum. I had to wait almost 9 months to receive materials from Great Britain because the postal workers went on strike for the first time in British history. I also had to use interlibrary loans through the library at Oregon State University, which also took extra time. My Major Professor went to Denmark on a leave of absence while I was writing the first, second or third drafts, so that took extra time. Also, the dissertation is 393 pages so the length alone was time consuming.

Automobile Safety

Walter L. Bell, Ph.D.

Chrysler is now a private corporation whose directors thought they were immune from lawsuits caused by faulty parts for cars manufactured when the company was a public corporation. The directors of the new private company must have forgotten that they received money from the United States government to bail them out of bankruptcy. Their refusal to fix the gasoline tanks was a stupid decision because in assuming the Jeep brand, which has been the most successful in producing income for the previous public corporation and the current private corporation, it shot itself in the foot. Can you imagine the pain and suffering caused by the victims who survived a rear end collision and caused the gasoline to fill the entire passenger compartment which then ignited and either burned its victims alive or permanently scared the surviving passengers for life?

Any automobile which has a gasoline tank without a firewall between the gasoline tank and the passenger compartment can drench its passengers in a severe rear end collision. The answer to this problem is a fuel cell which is lined with a neoprene rubber lining which will not rupture under severe collisions. No race car is allowed on the track without an approved fuel cell. In looking at costs, a 22 gallon fuel cell costs about $850.00, from a company named:

RACER PARTS WHOLESALE
411 Dorman
Indianapolis, IN 46202

Monday through Friday, 8:00- 5:00 EST
Local: 317-639-0725
Toll-Free: 800-397-7815

info@racerpartswholesale.com

All the major car manufacturers, including Ford, General Motors, Chrysler, and foreign manufacturers support the race car circuits and know about the safety requirements for race cars. So if you own a car without a closed off trunk such as a Jeep, I would put pressure on the car companies of the cars you own to prove that you have a safe gasoline tank in your car. Remember, we now have a Federal Consumer Safety Agency, thanks to the efforts of President Barack Obama and Senator Elizabeth Warren from the State of Massachusetts, who would have been appointed to head this agency except for the opposition of the Republican Party. She ran against Senator Scott Brown and won in the election when he chose to question her Cherokee Indian Heritage because she could not prove it on paper but had known it from the oral tradition handed down through her family. I have the same problem because the family tradition is that my grandmother was part Cherokee Indian. I have spent much time looking through the rolls of the Cherokee, Choctaw and other Indian rolls without success.

If you use the web browser, OmniWeb, you can find the names, address, and telephone numbers of all the Federal Agencies. Call or write to them and inquire about the safety standards for your model of automobile. Remember your safety and those of your family and friends are at stake. The life you save could be your own as well as people you do not even know–this is known as “paying forward.”

The Addictive Personality

An addictive personality can take many forms other than addiction to food, drugs, alcohol, and sexual addition. We have all met people who obsess over each object having a proper place, so that when entering a room they will get upset if something is out of place. I notice this addiction because I have trouble keeping track of my own possessions which are not lost but seem to be where I left them. I tend to have a horizontal method of filing so that papers get scattered across my desk or work area. I have files, but I do not always put them in the proper place. Another form of addiction are list makers, who can drive those around them crazy if the day does not proceed according to their list. I know of one person who has a mental list that has to be followed or he gets very upset and constantly has to tell those around him about his list.

I saw an old movie recently about two people who got married where the man was already an alcoholic. He offered her a drink which she refused. When he persisted she told him that she had no interest in drinking, but she always had a supply of chocolates. He ordered her a drink flavored with chocolate and got her started on alcohol, so that she replaced a relatively harmless addiction with one which ruined her life. It is the latter kind of addition that I will explore in this article because additions which ruin the life on an individual and which make those around them miserable are ones that need to be treated by skilled counselor.

Power is another kind of addiction which causes those in charge of a company to try to dominate those around them. Politicians are often addicted to power and can be easily purchased by billionaires who use them for favors which furthers their own quest for power. In my professional life in education, I met many of these people. We had one member of our staff who would throw up prior to coming to a staff meeting as he plotted how to manipulate the other members of the staff. If you caught him in a lie, he would reply that he was not the same person as he was when he lied, because each day he became a new person. He chose one acolyte who was willing to sell his own soul with the promise to get a promotion from an Assistant Professor to a full Professor by doing as he was told. He went from an Assistant Professor to a full Professor in two short years without doing anything but following orders. The senior Professor was eventually fired by the President of the College for sending demeaning letters to the President. His acolyte eventually became Dean of the School of Education as the College became a State University. The acolyte traded his soul in his quest for power.

Prestige is another form of addiction. Since I lived in a University town, we had many wives who sought prestige through their husband’s career. We had one wife of a medical doctor who complained about the members of the University who were addressed as Doctor, but who had earned a Ph.D. rather than an M.D. What the woman did not realize was the the first degrees were Doctors of Divinity. D.D. Next came the Doctors of Philosophy or Ph.D. which was more of an all inclusive form of recognition and includes a wide range of disciplines such as physics, mathematics, philosophy, etc. Later, we had Doctors of Education, or E.D., and lastly Doctors of Medicine or M.D. which also cover a wide range of specialties which stemmed from the first surgeons who were originally barbers. Doctors of Veterinarian Medicine are the most difficult of all doctoral medical degrees to obtain, because the number of degrees granted per year is limited to the top candidates because the demand is limited and the pay is not on par with other medical specialties.

Money is not evil, but people who have and excess of money will usually associate only with those who have money. Occasionally those who have lived all their lives as wealthy individuals will use their money to help others, but because the pursuit of money can become an addition, it can also become a source of snobbery, isolation, and lack of tolerance for those who are not wealthy. There are exceptions where those who are wealthy will form a foundation to use their excess money to help those who are poor, disabled, and those who lack the means to get an education.

Lastly, the kinds of addiction are limitless. One last addiction that is shown on television are the addiction to hoarding all kinds of objects. Some of the hoarders will completely fill their living space with all kinds of objects, both new and old, and have to hire people to come in and get rid of the excess objects so that they can have access to an orderly living space. There are also people with multiple additions to wealth, drugs, power, prestige, food, and to toys such as cars, boats, homes, etc. Many people with addictive personalities never seek help for their addictions to the extent that they make those around them unhappy and unloved.

Voter Suppression Laws

Walter L. Bell, Ph.D.

The voting rights act was put into place to provide citizens of the United States with the opportunity to vote without undue registration requirements. With the Republican Party desperately trying to win the next election for President, the House of Representatives, and the Senate, their best opportunity appears to cheat by passing bogus laws which makes it more difficult for the poor, the aged, and the minority voters to vote. If our Supreme Court were awake and concerned with all members of the United States, it would not have passed the Citizens United ruling allowing the billionaires to buy votes. I have not forgotten how my vote was ignored and suppressed in the 2000 election when the Supreme Court appointed George Bush as President, and again sat silent when the Secretary of State for Ohio ignored pleas for a recount when thousands of ballots disappeared, and George Bush was appointed again by the Ohio Secretary of State.

In a Democracy, the right to vote is sacred if were are to survive as a free nation and not end up as dictatorship. A judge in Pennsylvania has allowed the new law which discriminates against about 750,000 voters who have voted in previous elections, by requiring new voter identification rules and not allowing any voting on weekends. Many of these voters are poor and cannot afford the cost of new identification, and have no way to get to the proper place to register or to vote once they get their new registration. Many of the elderly black people were not born in hospitals because the white run hospitals would not allow them to give birth in a hospital. An elderly black woman who marched with Martin Luther King will not be able to vote. Latinos, young students in colleges will not be allowed to vote unless they vote via absentee ballots.

Here is what I would suggest for all Americans to do, because it appears that our dysfunctional Supreme Court has gone to sleep again. It appears that certain members of the Supreme Court have contracted the BAT-CRAP-CRAZY-VIRUS that infected the Tea Party Members, such as U.S.Rep Michelle Bachmann. Clarence Thomas and his wife were also infected by the virus with regard to the $800,000 she earned from the Tea Party. Clarence Thomas claimed he did not understand income tax rules. He got a second dose of the virus when he attended the secret meetings hosted by the infamous Billionaire Koch Brothers. Also infected by this virus were Antonin Scalia and Samuel A. Alito who also attended these secret meetings.

It is no wonder that to please themselves and the other Republican members of the U.S. Supreme Court, as well as most of the Billionaire group, they voted to pass the Citizens United law that gave Billionaires the right to buy votes nationwide to influence legislation and buy Senators, Representatives at the National and State level. The Citizens United law was the most biased and stupidest law ever passed by any Supreme Court in our history, by declaring corporations to be persons. The last I heard, only children born by other people were legally persons. This same Supreme Court has been silent regarding Voter Suppression Laws passed by states with a vast number of minority citizens, both poor, old and ethnically impure with the basic intent to prevent them from voting and thus ensuring that a Republican President is elected. So in order to help these voters to be able to vote in the next election I am suggesting the following:

1. Send a letter to the Supreme Court Justice of the United States, John Roberts, and to the Associate Justices as well. If you need help get together with your friends and neighbors and send out letters as a group. Explain your discontent with their inaction and mention the attendance of Associate Justices Antonin Scalia, Samuel Alito, and Clarence Thomas at the secret meetings with the Koch Brothers where much of these actions were discussed and planned,

2. Send a copy of the letter to the State Supreme Courts, the Secretary of State for your state or whoever is in charge of elections, the local person in charge of elections. If you can, try to get a bipartisan group involved, but I would not be disappointed if you do not get the cooperation of the Republican Party. It is not in their best interest to have fair elections in our government.

3. Also, send a letter to the Attorney General of the United States, Eric Holder, telling him you support his efforts to challenge voter suppression laws.

4. Start a fund drive to help those voters in other states who do not have the financial means to pay for voter registration.

5. Current Members of the Supreme Court of the United States:

Name Service Assoc Justice Chief Justice Birth Place Date Religion

Antonin Scalia 1986– *** N.J. 1936 Roman Catholic

Anthony N. Kennedy 1988– *** Calif 1936 Roman Catholic

Clarence Thomas 1991– *** GA 1948 Roman Catholic

Ruth Bader Ginsberg 1993– *** N.Y. 1933 Jewish

Stephen G. Breyer 1994– *** Calif 1938 Jewish

John G. Roberts 2005– N.Y, 1955 Roman Catholic

Samuel A. Alito, Jr. 2006 *** N.J. 1950 Roman Catholic

Sonia Sotomayor 2009 *** N.Y. 1954 Roman Catholic

Elena Kagan 2010 *** N.Y. 1960 Jewish

Mailing Address for the Supreme Court:
U.S. Supreme Court Building, 1 First Street NE
Washington, DC 20543

ON DAY ONE I WILL DO THE FOLLOWING

Since the Republican hopeful for POTUS needs only one day to completely change the direction and function of the United States of America, I suggest limiting Willard Romney to a one day Presidency. After all, he constantly talks about firing people, doing away with Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security, the Department of Education, Commerce, all Wall Street reforms, taxation for the Wealthy, etc. I suggest that he also do away with the Supreme Court since it has become so inept and biased toward the Citizens United Billionaires that it no longer functions as the third branch of government. He could also revoke the citizenship of all the 1% millionaires and billionaires and send them to the Cayman Islands and other off shore tax avoidance havens. He could export Jaime Dimon(James Dimon). James “Jamie” Dimon is an American business executive. He is the current chairman, president, and chief executive officer of JPMorgan Chase, one of the Big Four banks of the United States. Under his expert leadership JPMorgan Chase lost at least 2 Billion dollars gambling with derivatives. He reportedly lost 3 Billion dollars or more, but who is counting with such exemplary leadership. He could serve as a one day Secretary of the Treasury and continue to Bankrupt the United States as President George W. Bush did with Treasury Secretary Henry(Hank) Paulson(The Sky is Falling Treasury Secretary). Hank Paulson, knowing that our treasury was in default, and knowing that the four of the largest banks in Great Britain were near default bought Puts on three of their largest banks and earned 5 Billion dollars. If Paulson had purchased Puts on the US Banks which were also in default, he would have been guilty of insider trading and could have been sentenced to prison. You buy puts on financial trading as a bet that the price of a commodity or some other financial transaction is going to decline. You buy Calls on a financial transaction if you think it is going to increase in value.

So you see that we need Romney as President for one day only to finish the job of bankrupting this country started by eight years of the failed Presidency of George W. Bush. We would then fire Romney and turn the Presidency back to Barack Obama in order to clean up the destruction and disorder imposed upon this great nation by the Supreme Court, the Bush and Romney Administrations, and rename the Republican Party, the “Citizen United Party for the Destruction of the United States with the aid of Republican Supreme Court Justices of the United States”. That is a very long title for the Republican Party but since we would have our one day President Romney, not only firing himself but the entire Republican Supreme Court Justices and all of the Republican Representatives and Senators, including Rep. Eric Kantor, Rep. Paul Ryan, and especially Sen. Mitch McConnell, who would in his final act as a Senator make Romney a ONE DAY PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, I do not have the time at this moment to come up with a shorter title.

Some song writer could write a stirring melody for this occasion commemorating the One Day POTUS and the former Republican SCOTUS members would be replaced by newly appointed members by the the Second Term President Barack Obama. I have not exhausted my store of ideas, but I need to stop at this point and Cook Breakfast, which given my limited cooking skills includes only making coffee. You see my definition of cooking is applying heat to some food or beverage.

SLEEP APNEA

We have four members of our family with SLEEP APNEA which can lead to death, fatigue, early dementia, diminished lung capacity, and heart failure. It is a very serious disease and affects millions of people. I just learned that professional truck drivers must have a sleep machine and must be monitored in order to continue driving. Athletes of all ages need to be tested for sleep apnea particularly if they gain weight during the off season when not exercising. Only your partner can help you detect if you have sleep apnea. For example, my wife could not get a good night’s sleep because I snored so loudly that I kept her awake so we visited a doctor who specialized in this disease. The results were dramatic because I started out awakening very early in the morning with severe headaches which started out at one time per week and progressed to 4 times per week. One time I was driving our 36 foot RV and towing a Jeep when I feel asleep enough to start to go off the road. I recovered in time to prevent an accident.

Besides snoring, some people snort in their sleep and awake themselves as well as their partner. Others flail their legs and arms as they sleep. I felt tired all the time because I did not get enough sleep. One of the linebackers for the Green Bay Packers retired at about 39 years of age and died at age 42 of sleep apnea. Linemen are particularly vulnerable because of their size, and they tend to gain weight once they retire. I gained weight once I retired, but I had sleep apnea for many years without knowing it. I recently convinced my wife to have the doctor prescribe a sleep test for her and now she has had two good nights sleep for the first time in years. It took me awhile to convince her, but she could not go to sleep and stay asleep. She might fall asleep for an hour and the stay awake for two or more hours, and would often finally go to sleep at five a.m. and then sleep during the day. Since I have had a sleep machine for several years, I go to sleep immediately once I turn on the machine and put on my sleeping mask. I noticed her sleeping problems when she slept during the day.

A sleep study consists of sleeping over night in a hospital equipped for sleep studies. You are hooked up with electrodes in your hair, on your chest and on your legs. The monitor allows the attendants to measure the number and severity of sleep episodes during the night. My step daughter had 80 or more episodes per night which included not breathing, snoring, fatigue and the usual sleep apnea episodes. I had to convince my doctor that I had sleep apnea before he would order a new study. His wife told me that I had a slight sleep apnea which is like telling a women that she is slightly pregnant.

The machines used in treating sleep apnea have progressed in their design over the past several years. My wife’s new machine has a built in wireless antennae which sends the results to the provider of the machine who then forwards the report to your doctor. It also has a vaporizer to prevent dry mouth which is a leading cause of tooth decay. Luckily I do not have this problem but my wife does have it. Some people cannot wear a full mask like I use because of claustrophobia, so there are all kinds of masks which are available for persons to use. My wife is using a sleeping pill for the first two weeks so that she can go to sleep as soon as she puts on her mask. The technician told us that most people do not need it after the first two weeks, because as soon as you put on your mask the brain tells you it is time to go to sleep. I have always wondered why I go to sleep immediately as soon as I put on my mask. Also, as soon as you fall asleep, you rarely have to get up during the night to go to the bathroom, because again the brain monitors the kidney function while you are asleep. Your medical provider will pay for the sleep study and the sleep machine provider will call you and ask what supplies you need. It is great that we now have universal health care provisions in this nation, if the politicians and citizens do not try to vote it of existence. It took over a hundred years to get our current health coverage after President Theodore Roosevelt, a Republican, tried to provide it 1900. It is not perfect, but a healthy nation is a more productive nation because we have less catastrophic illness which drive up health costs.

The Arab Spring

New reports regarding the Arab Spring do not focus very much upon the heroics of the Muslim Women who are very much at the forefront of the Movements for freedom from repressive governments. It is no surprise that Muslim women are not given credit in the press for their heroics. For some reason women have not been recognized in the USA. If you want an example of this you need only to watch the Congressional hearings led by Republican Rep.Darrell Issa from California on women’s reproductive rights. The only woman at these hearings was Rep. Eleanor Holmes Norton, who objected to a hearing of all men making decisions regarding women’s rights without any women available to testify because none were invited.

In the Egyptian uprisings, both men and women were represented in great numbers. I have great admiration for the courage shown by Muslim women all across Northern Africa with special recognition for the courage of the Libyan woman who was raped by the Gaddafi”s guards, and went on television to report it. In Syria, the Syrian Army is targeting men, women and children who have no protection, no medical care, and lately very little food. It is hard to tell anything regarding the outcome of women’s rights in this region once the governments are changed to allow the citizens more participation in their own government. In the early stages of the development of the Muslim religion, the women had more rights than at present times.

The current paranoia by many of the citizens of the United States regarding Muslims, a nation which was supposedly founded upon the freedom to pursue any religion of ones choice, is a stain upon our national character. To denigrate the religion of the Muslims in this nation and around the world is a retreat to the Crusades which were carried out to get rid of the so-called infidel Muslim religion. I do not know where this quote came from, but someone in the news stated that a Muslim said that he wished he had met Jesus Christ before he met Christians. In our own new search for a new President, we have new voter suppression laws being passed by many states that mirror the poll taxes laws in the Southern States prior to the Civil Rights Movement. These states are trying to ensure that the minorities in the United States do not re-elect a President who is not white.

I have recently watched a television movie made in 1997, Mandela and De Klerk, where Sidney Poitier played the role of Nelson Mandela. In this movie Poitier was brilliant in his role as Mandela in his quest to bring equality to the Black Citizens of South Africa. The movie was a great reminder of the struggle the human race has to provide freedom and equality for all our earthly citizens regardless of their race, gender or religion. Much of our current political discourse reverts back to the racial origins of President Barack Obama. By the voter suppression measures being instituted in many of our states we certainly do not appear to have learned much about equal rights for our citizens. I am hoping that we emulate the courage shown by the men and women in the Arab Spring movement.

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